Life expectancy equals the average number of years a person born in a given country would live if mortality rates at each age were to remain constant in the future. The life expectancy is shown separately for males and females, as well as a combined figure. Several non-sovereign entities are also included in this list. The figures reflect the quality of healthcare in the countries listed as well as other factors including ongoing wars, obesity, and HIV infections.
Worldwide, the average life expectancy at birth was 71.0 years (68.5 years for males and 73.5 years for females) over the period 2010-2013 according to United Nations World Population Prospects 2012 Revision, and 70.7 years (68.2 years for males and 73.2 years for females) for 2009 according to The World Factbook. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), women on average live longer than men in all countries, with the exception of Tuvalu, Tonga, Kuwait, and Qatar. Source: Wikipedia
Running 5 Minutes A Day Might Add Years To Your Life
Attention everyone who hates to run: Turns out, you only need to torture yourself for about five minutes a day to reap some important health benefits like adding years to your life.
According to a new study published Monday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, those who jogged or ran for as little as five minutes a day reduced their risk of premature death by about three years.
USA Today quotes the study's lead author, who says those who run for less than an hour a week reap the same health benefits as those who run more, regardless of age, gender or health conditions. "More [running] may not be better in relation to health benefits."
To get these results, researchers studied the exercise habits of more than 55,000 adults between the ages of 18 and 100 over the course of 15 years.
They found, compared to those who didn't run at all, those who ran less than an hour a week were 30 percent less likely to die for any reason during the course of the study.
And on top of that, those runners were also 45 percent less likely to die of cardiovascular disease.
A cardiologist and chief medical officer of Virginia Heart in northern Virginia told CNN "That's important to note. Even with all the negative factors, such as obesity, smoking and diabetes, those who were, let's say, obese and ran had a less likely chance of dying from heart problems than those obese people who didn't run. Same with smokers, diabetics, etc."
And other studies have gone one step further finding that taking your running routine to the max on a consistent basis may do more harm than good.
Research presented at the American College of Cardiology recently found those who run more than 20 miles a week have shorter life spans compared to non runners. In fact, they apparently live, on average, about as long as people who don't run much at all.
It seems consistency is key here. The study found those who ran consistently over a six year period gained the most health benefits: 29 percent saw a lower risk of death, and 50 percent had a lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease.
The researchers advise those who want to start running should start off slow with walking, then move to jogging and running. Source: AOL
COPD Life Expectancy and Stages
Doctors describe the severity and progression of emphysema with staging systems. Although everyone with emphysema is unique, emphysema staging can help with prognosis. However, no emphysema staging system can accurately predict what will happen to any individual person with emphysema.
Pulmonary Function Affects Emphysema Prognosis
Emphysema staging requires pulmonary function testing (PFTs). Doctors use PFTs to follow the lung capacity in people with emphysema. During PFTs, a person with emphysema breathes and blows air through a tube while airflow is measured. A person's emphysema prognosis is in large part determined by PFTs.
The lung damage in emphysema creates small air pockets in the lungs, where air becomes trapped. The trapped air makes it difficult for people with emphysema to blow out forcefully. The more air that is trapped, the worse lung function becomes. Over time, this makes it harder to breathe with emphysema, and pulmonary function test results decline.
The GOLD Emphysema Staging System
One major emphysema staging system is called GOLD. It was created by an expert group called the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
The major factor in GOLD emphysema staging is the amount of air a person with emphysema can forcefully exhale in one second. This is called the forced expiratory volume, or FEV1.
GOLD emphysema staging is as follows:
Stage I, Mild emphysema: FEV1 greater than or equal to 80% of normal
Stage II, Moderate emphysema: FEV1 less than 80%, but greater than or equal to 50% of normal
Stage III, Severe emphysema: FEV1 less than 50%, but greater than or equal to 30% of normal
Stage IV, Very severe emphysema: FEV1 less than 30% of normal, OR less than 50% of normal with low blood oxygen levels
GOLD emphysema staging is well established and widely used. However, GOLD emphysema staging does not include other areas of functioning that are important, such as how people living with emphysema feel.
The BODE Emphysema Staging System
Emphysema affects more than the ability to blow air through a tube. The BODE index, another emphysema staging system, measures emphysema's impact on multiple areas in life:
Body mass index (B), or weight adjusted for height
Airflow limitation (O for obstruction), measured by pulmonary function tests.
Breathlessness (D for dyspnea), assessed by a questionnaire.
Exercise capacity (E), measured by how far a person with emphysema can walk in six minutes.
The BODE index does a slightly better job at determining emphysema prognosis than GOLD criteria.
Emphysema (COPD) Life Expectancy and Emphysema Statistics
An emphysema prognosis is impossible to determine in any individual person. Although emphysema staging can help identify the severity of emphysema, it can't predict the future.
There have been no large studies to determine emphysema's effect on life expectancy. The largest and best studies have only included a few hundred people. Emphysema staging is helpful, but emphysema still varies widely between two people at the same stage. Source: WebMD
Oxygen Treatment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Oxygen treatment increases the amount of oxygen that flows into your lungs and bloodstream. If your COPD is very bad and your blood oxygen levels are low, getting more oxygen can help you breathe better and live longer.
There are several ways to deliver the oxygen, including:
You don't have to stay at home or in a hospital to use oxygen. Oxygen systems are portable. You can use them while you do your daily tasks.
What To Expect After Treatment
Long-term oxygen treatment may improve your quality of life. It can help you live longer when you have severe COPD and low oxygen levels. You may notice less shortness of breath and have more energy.
Why It Is Done
Long-term oxygen therapy is used for COPD if you have low levels of oxygen in your blood (hypoxia). It is used mostly to slow or prevent right-sided heart failure. It can help you live longer.
Oxygen may be given in a hospital if you have a rapid, sometimes sudden, increased shortness of breath (COPD exacerbation). Oxygen can also be used at home if the oxygen level in your blood is too low for long periods.
Long-term oxygen therapy should be used for at least 15 hours a day with as few interruptions as possible. Regular use can reduce the risk of death from low oxygen levels.1 To get the most benefit from oxygen, you use it 24 hours a day.
An arterial blood gas test should be done first to see if you need oxygen. You may need oxygen if:
Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) is less than or equal to 55 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury, a measure of pressure).
Arterial oxygen saturation is less than or equal to 88%.
Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) is between 56 mm Hg and 59 mm Hg, or oxygen saturation is 89% and you have:
Evidence of right-side heart failure due to breathing problems (cor pulmonale).
An increased number of red blood cells (erythrocytosis).
Arterial oxygen saturation is greater than 88% when you are resting but becomes less than or equal to 88% when you are exercising or sleeping.
How Well It Works
Several studies show that using oxygen at home for more than 15 hours a day increases quality of life and helps people live longer when they have severe COPD and low blood levels of oxygen.1, 2 Oxygen therapy has good short-term and long-term effects in people who have COPD.3
Using oxygen may also improve confusion and memory problems. It may improve impaired kidney function caused by low oxygen levels.
Typically there are no risks from oxygen treatment as long as you follow your doctor's instructions. But oxygen is a fire hazard, so it is important to follow safety rules. Do not use oxygen around lit cigarettes, open flames, or anything flammable.
Oxygen is usually prescribed to raise the PaO2 to between 60 and 65 mm Hg or the saturations from 90% to 92%. Higher flow rates usually do not help, and they can even be dangerous.
What To Think About
People using oxygen should not smoke.
Do not use oxygen around lit cigarettes or an open flame. If you or those who care for you smoke, or if there are other risks for fire, it is important to consider oxygen treatment very carefully because of the danger of fire or explosion.
You may need oxygen in certain situations, including:
During exercise. For some people with COPD, blood oxygen levels drop only when they exercise or are very active. Using oxygen during exercise may help boost performance and reduce shortness of breath for some people. But there are no studies that show any long-term benefits from using oxygen during exercise.
During sleep. During sleep, breathing naturally slows down because the body doesn't need as much oxygen. Sleep-related breathing disorders are quite common in people with COPD, and many will have significantly low blood oxygen levels during sleep.
For air travel. The level of oxygen in airplanes is about the same as the oxygen level at an elevation of 8000 ft (2438 m). This drop in oxygen can really affect people with COPD. If you normally use oxygen or have borderline-low oxygen levels in your blood, you may need oxygen when you fly. Traveling with oxygen usually is possible. But it is important to plan ahead before you travel.
20 Ways to Stay Young From A 96 Year Old Grandmother
1. Watch you're figure closely, because if you don't take the time to do so, nobody else will. She watched what she ate and exercised, but she also knew how to wear a dress like nobody's business.
2. Avoid spending time with people who complain about how old they feel. They will just pull you right down with them and make you feel old too. Instead, surround yourself with people who feel and act young, both inside and out. Seriously, she lived by this rule and only kept the company of positive and enlightening folks.
3. Exercise every day, no matter how tired or lazy you feel. Just moving around will make you forget about how tired you are, and pretty soon, you'll have more energy to do all of the fun things you truly want to do. She either played golf, swam, danced or walked nearly every day of her life.
4. Travel whenever you are able. Seeing the world and discovering how other people live adds life, love and lucidity to your years. Well into her 90s, Anna Lee was traveling abroad to fabulous and exotic places on a moment's notice.
5. Take the time to plan wonderful things for the future, this will give you something to look forward to and make you feel hopeful. Whenever I spoke to her, she had something new to tell me about what she was going to be doing both sooner and later.
6. Be extravagant once in awhile. Whether its eating a decadent piece of chocolate cake, wearing something much too sexy for your own good, or dining at a very expensive restaurant once a year this can make you feel both happy and young. She could be seen eating a small piece of dark chocolate every afternoon while sometimes wearing a low cut sweater.
7. On a daily basis, eat whatever you want, drink what you want, and say what you want, but all with a degree of moderation. While she enjoyed a martini, she didn't get drunk, although she may have danced a bit more because of it.
8. Flirt with life not just with men and women, but with all of what life has to offer. This will make you feel young, hopeful and excited to get out of bed every day. My grandma enjoyed flirting with any man in uniform, and I am certain that if she were around today, she would flirt with my boyfriend while also flirting with the idea of buying new shoes.
9. Surround yourself with lively, smart, fun and interesting people who adore being around you, don't settle for anything or anyone else. I once witnessed my grandmother speaking to a man with a mustache who spoke to her in Italian about a book he had just written, while he smiled at her the whole time.
10. Be spontaneous. When you do something out of the ordinary and on barely a moment's notice, this can make you feel alive and young. She was known to announce unexpected trips and excursions to the beach.
11. Don't ever feel sorry about yourself. It is a waste of time and a waste of your life. And it also bores people to tears. Never once in all of my years did I ever hear my grandmother complain about her life.
12. Take the time to be beautiful. You can't feel both depressed and fabulous at the same time. She got her hair done every week; it was dyed a beautiful shade of blonde with perfect flips and fragrant hairspray.
13. Treat yourself regularly to wonderful little things, especially if they seem unnecessary and frivolous. This will remind you that you are wonderful and when you feel wonderful, you just feel better. She often frequented special bookstores and could also be found buying herself shoes and hats on cold winter days.
14. Never say or think that you are "too old" to do anything. This is a self fulfilling prophecy, you are only as old as you make up your mind to be. My grandma was the first person to volunteer to do anything that seemed youthful.
15. Live the way that you feel your real age to be, not what others tell you. If you feel 16, keep that energy up and you will feel like a teenager for as long as you are willing. Even though she was way past sixteen, she could make anyone around her feel as forever young as she was.
16. Every morning when you wake up, tell yourself you are a beautiful and wonderful person while you look straight into the mirror. Anna Lee really did this, I saw her, and she would also sing to herself on occasion.
17. Read a lot of history, it will teach you a lot about what other people have gone through and their stories will inspire you. It will give you perspective about how good you really have it right now. My grandma was absolutely obsessed about history, especially about the soap opera dalliances of English Royalty and the sufferings of commoners and romantics.
18. As soon as a negative thought comes into your mind, make a habit of replacing it with a joke, a humorous anecdote, watch a funny film, or call a positive friend. Grateful to say, she often called moi for a humor boost.
19. Whether you're a man or a woman, never sit around all day in your bedclothes. Get dressed, brush your hair, spiff yourself up and be ready for the Queen of England if she happens to stop by. Within a half hour of waking, she had her "face on," her heels and her hair brushed and smelling like candy.
20. Pay attention to children because they know how to be happy, young and carefree. I should know about this one, I was lucky enough to be her granddaughter, and she paid a lot of attention to me and my three daughters. Source: elephantjournal
Key To COPD Life Expectancy Is Early Detection
Is It Early COPD?
The first symptoms of COPD are frequent coughing and more mucus or phlegm coughed up from the lungs. Your chest may start to feel tight. The coughing begins to disturb your sleep. You may feel tired, and become short of breath when walking up a hill or a flight of stairs.
It's tempting to think of these symptoms as just a part of normal aging. But they may not be.
"If you've smoked, are over 45, get short of breath doing daily activities, or are backing off your exercise regimen because of a little breathlessness at the end all those are reasons not just to talk with your primary care provider but maybe to talk to a lung specialist," says Dr. James Kiley, PhD, director of the lung disease division of the National Institutes of Health.
COPD diagnosis depends on a test called spirometry. The test measures how much air you can force from the lungs and how fast it blows out.
Early Disease Detection Key to COPD Life Expectancy
There is no such thing as an average case of COPD. One person's experience may differ dramatically from another's.
In general, lung function declines slowly but steadily, until there's a sudden worsening of symptoms. That speeds up lung damage.
To monitor someone with COPD, doctors keep tabs on their current symptoms, lung function tests, and other conditions such as heart disease and diabetes that are often also seen in people with COPD.
Diagnosed early enough, a person with risk factors for COPD might be able to get off the slippery slope of worsening lung function.
"The most important thing would be to really quit smoking," according to a recent WebMD article. Further focus should be to keep up to date on immunizations a flu shot and a pneumonia shot. All may keep someone with no symptoms from the progress or worsening COPD.
For more information on COPD life expectancy and prevention, visit WebMD.com
COPD life expectancy information courtesy: WebMD
COPD Treatment Options
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) - Treatment
The goals of treatment for COPD are to:
-Slow down the disease by quitting smoking and avoiding triggers, such as air pollution.
-Limit your symptoms, such as shortness of breath, with medicines.
I-ncrease your overall health with regular activity.
-Prevent and treat flare-ups with medicines and other treatment.
-Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab)Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) can help you meet these goals. It helps train your mind, muscles, and heart to get the most out of damaged lungs. The program involves a team of health professionals who help prevent or manage the problems caused by COPD. Rehab typically combines exercise, breathing therapy, advice for eating well, and other education.
Self-care COPD Treatment
Much of the treatment for COPD includes things you can do for yourself.
Quitting smoking is the most important thing you can do to slow the disease and improve your quality of life.
Quitting Smoking COPD Treatment
Other things you can do that really make a difference including eating well, staying active, and avoiding triggers. To learn more, see Living With COPD.
Medicines COPD Treatment
The medicines used to treat COPD can be long-acting to help prevent symptoms or short-acting to help relieve them. To learn more, see Medications.
Other COPD treatment you may need
If COPD gets worse, you may need other treatment, such as:
Oxygen COPD treatment. This involves getting extra oxygen through a face mask or through a small tube that fits just inside your nose. It can be done in the hospital or at home.
COPD Treatment for muscle weakness and weight loss. Many people with severe COPD have trouble keeping their weight up and their bodies strong. This can be treated by paying attention to eating regularly and well.
COPD Treatment for depression. COPD can affect more than your lungs. It can cause stress, anxiety, and depression. These things take energy and can make your COPD symptoms worse. But they can be treated. If you feel very sad or anxious, call your doctor.
COPD Treatment - Surgery. Surgery is rarely used for COPD. It's only considered for people who have severe COPD that has not improved with other treatment.
COPD Treatment Resources
SECOND WIND LUNG TRANSPLANT ASSOCIATION, INC.:
Information and support for transplantation.
ALPHA-1 ASSOCIATION: A not-for-profit organization that offers support, education and advocacy for individuals with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.
ALPHA-1 FOUNDATION: A not-for-profit organization with several programs that spread awareness and education for individuals with COPD, including Alpha-1 Clinical Resource Centers (CRC), the Alpha-1 Research Registry, other research programs and information on Alpha-1.
AMERICAN HOSPICE ORGANIZATION: Offers resources on hospice and palliative care.
AMERICAN LEGACY FOUNDATION: This organization has programs working to engage all Americans in the dialogue about tobacco and to foster an understanding about its harmful effects.
ADMINISTRATION ON AGING: Home and community-based care for older persons and their caregivers. Supportive services provide handyman, chore, and personal care services.
MESOTHELIOMA & ASBESTOS CANCER RESOURCE CENTER: Informational resource for diseases and cancers drawn from asbestos.
CHILDREN OF AGING PARENTS: Assists caregivers of the elderly or chronically ill with reliable information, referrals and support.
TODAY’S CAREGIVER MAGAZINE: Provider of information, support and guidance for family and professional caregivers.
FAMILY CAREGIVER ALLIANCE: Offers caregiving information, advice, and discussion groups.
CENTERWATCH: Clinical Trials Listing Service, PDR Family Guides Drug Information, information on prescription and over the counter (OTC) drugs as well as herbal treatments and supplements.
AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS CHEST JOURNAL: Prevention, treatment, education, research and communication about chest diseases.
COPD-ALERT SUPPORT AND ADVOCACY GROUP: Frontline Advice for COPD Patients, information on COPD and the NHLBI Learn More Breathe Better COPD Awareness Campaign.
COPD-INTERNATIONAL: COPD chat rooms, information, library for medical information, and support for caregivers.
THE ELDERCARE LOCATOR: The Eldercare Locator is the first step to finding resources for older adults in any U.S. community.
EMPHYSEMA FOUNDATION FOR OUR RIGHT TO SURVIVE: Information and support for people with emphysema and COPD.
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS: Health and drug information. Also contains a feature where you can find a doctor by entering your zip code.
THE GLOBAL INITIATIVE FOR CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: Works with healthcare professionals and public health officials around the world to raise COPD awareness and to improve prevention and treatment of this lung disease. Through the development of evidence-based guidelines for COPD management, and events such as the annual celebration of World COPD Day.
GRIEFNET: Support and resources for people dealing with grief, death and major loss.
AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION: Here you can find a local ALA chapter, flu clinic locator, help with treatment decisions for COPD, and definitions for lung diseases. La información también esta disponible en Español.
MEDLINEPLUS: A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Contains medical encyclopedia, dictionary, and information to help answer health questions. La información también esta disponible en Español.
MEDSCAPE TODAY: Resource center for all diseases, definitions and latest medical news.
NATIONAL JEWISH HEALTH: Site for LUNG LINE 1-800-222-LUNG (5864). Specializes in the treatment of patients with respiratory, immune and other related diseases, and for groundbreaking medical research. Founded in 1899 as a nonsectarian, nonprofit hospital, National Jewish remains the only facility in the world dedicated exclusively to these disorders.
NATIONAL FAMILY CAREGIVERS ASSOCIATION: Educates, supports, empowers and speaks up for caregivers. Also offers caregiving resources.
NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE: Information and research related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung and blood diseases, and sleep disorders for patients, the public, health professionals, and researchers.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH: A division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The NIH is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research, helping to lead the way toward important medical discoveries that improve people’s health and save lives. NIH scientists investigate ways to prevent disease as well as the causes, treatments and even cures for common and rare diseases.
NATIONAL LUNG HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAM: Contains several resources for patients and health care professionals on COPD.
PHYSICIANS DESKTOP REFERENCE: This database provides comprehensive consumer-friendly information on prescription and over the counter (OTC) drugs available through pharmacies.
PULMONARY EDUCATION & RESEARCH FOUNDATION: Education, research and information on COPD.
PORTABLE OXYGEN: A USER’S PERSPECTIVE: Created by Dr. Peter Wilson, this website contains descriptions of all types of portable oxygen systems, traveling with oxygen, safety, as well as a Q&A section.
PARTNERSHIP FOR PRESCRIPTION ASSISTANCE: Helps patients without prescription coverage to get medicines they need through private or public programs.
AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY: Patient and healthcare professional education on COPD.
ATS/ERS STANDARDS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH COPD: ATS/ERS Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD
VISITING ANGELS: Network of non-medical, private duty home care agencies providing senior care, elder care, personal care, respite care and companion care to help the elderly and adults continue to live in their homes across America.
WELL SPOUSE ASSOCIATION: Support for spousal caregivers, support groups, and newsletters.
PARTNERSHIP FOR PRESCRIPTION ASSISTANCE: Helps patients without prescription coverage to get medicines they need through private or public programs.
YOUR LUNG HEALTH: Information from a variety of sources, including respiratory therapist experts from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), to help you minimize problems of living with lung disease, maximize your health and energy, and prevent future lung conditions.
EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOCIETY: ERS is the leading professional organisation in its field in Europe. It is broad-based, with some 10,000 members and counting in over 100 countries. Its scope covers both basic science and clinical medicine.
A PLACE FOR MOM: Give help to seniors and families to make informed decisions, save time, and feel less alone as you search for senior care and senior housing.
NTM INFO & RESEARCH: A not-for-profit working to save and improve lives through research, education, early detection, and improved treatments for people with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease.
Life Expectancy Tables by Age
|All other males
|All other females
How to protect yourself If you're shopping for a life insurance policy (Online)*
As we've long advised for most consumers, buy term life rather than a cash value or whole life policy.
Shop for the best price by using online insurance brokers, such as Accuquote.com, FindMyInsurance.com, and LifeInsure.com.
Whatever you buy term, cash value life, or annuities, sign only with an insurer that has earned the very top financial strength rating from an independent rater. That would be the A ratings tier at TheStreet.com, available to consumers free, as well as the AAAq grade at Fitch and the AAApi grade at S&P.
To further diversify, buy coverage within your state's guaranty association limit from separate companies: For example, a $300,000 death benefit policy or $100,000 cash surrender value policy from Company A, and additional, similar value policies from Companies B, C, etc. But the added safety of multiple policies might cost you a higher combined premium than you might pay with a single policy.
If you're already a policyholder:
Try to maintain good health in case you need to shop for new coverage.
If you have cash value life or an annuity, monitor your insurer's health regularly. When TheStreet.com's agency went by the name Weiss Ratings, it spotted trouble long before six major life/health failures in the late 1980s and early 1990s and red flagged the companies as "vulnerable" an average of 10 months before regulators stepped in, well in advance of other agencies. By contrast, Best did so an average of one day after regulators took action, rating two of those disasters A (excellent) at the time of their impairment. Best says its rating process has been "substantially enhanced" since then, but its financial strength rating of AIG Insurance was?A when AIG collapsed last September.
If you want to bail out of a variable annuity, weigh the policy's surrender charges against any feared losses.
*This article appeared in the May 2009 issue of Consumer Reports Money Adviser. Source: ConsumerReports.org
Structured Annuity Settlement
A structured settlement is a financial or insurance arrangement whereby a claimant agrees to resolve a personal injury tort claim by receiving periodic payments on an agreed schedule rather than as a lump sum. Structured settlements were first utilized in Canada after a settlement for children affected by Thalidomide. Structured settlements are widely used in product liability or injury cases (such as the birth defects from Thalidomide). A structured settlement can be implemented to reduce legal and other costs by avoiding trial. Structured settlement cases became more popular in the United States during the 1970s as an alternative to lump sum settlements. The increased popularity was due to several rulings by the IRS, an increase in personal injury awards, and higher interest rates. The IRS rulings changed policies such that if certain requirements were met then claimants could have federal income tax waived. Higher interest rates result in lower present values, hence annuity premiums, for deferred payments versus a lump sum.
Structured annuity settlements have become part of the statutory tort law of several common law countries including Australia, Canada, England and the United States. Structured settlements may include income tax and spendthrift requirements as well as benefits and are considered to be an asset-backed security. Often the periodic payment will be created through the purchase of one or more annuities, which guarantee the future payments. Structured settlement payments are sometimes called periodic payments and when incorporated into a trial judgment is called a “periodic payment judgment."
How to apply for a health insurance subsidy
It's all about your income
You can now get financial help to lower the cost of your monthly health insurance. These FAQs will explain what you need to know when applying for financial help for health insurance. They will help you understand how to report your income.
How much can I make and still get financial help?
The health care law (known as the Affordable Care Act, ACA, or "Obamacare") offers special financial assistance to help people pay for insurance. To get the help, you have to buy insurance on your state's Health Insurance Marketplace. For 2015, tax credits are available to single people who make up to $46,680 a year. A family of four can make up to $95,400 a year and get tax credits.
You can use these tax credits several ways to reduce the cost of your health insurance. For people whose income is lower, you can also get cost-sharing reductions (lower co-payments, co-insurance or deductibles). A single person can make up to $29,175 a year and get lower cost-sharing and tax credits. A family of four can make up to $59,625 a year and get cost-sharing reductions in addition to tax credits.
To figure out if you qualify for financial assistance for 2015, your Health Insurance Marketplace needs to know your household income. The Marketplace needs to know how much you expect your tax household's income will be for the year you will have the insurance. (For Medicaid, they will look at your current monthly income.) That's an easy question to answer if you have a steady income from a job or other regular, predictable income. But it is not so easy if you have unsteady or hard-to-predict income from self-employment, sales commissions, seasonal work, or another form of income.
Click on this image to see our interactive tax credit tool.
How does the tax credit work?
The Health Premium Tax Credit is a new way to lower the cost of health insurance when you buy it through the Marketplace. Because it is a tax credit, it lowers the total amount of tax you owe the IRS. Or, if you don't owe any tax, it increases your refund. You can use the tax credit even if you did not make enough to file taxes last year.
There are two ways to use the tax credit. You can get it "in advance" and use it to lower your monthly health premiums right away. Or, you can wait until tax time and get the full amount as a refund when you file your taxes. Keep in mind, if you use it "in advance" you should call your Health Insurance Marketplace to report any changes in income or family size during the year. Take a look at our tax credit tool to help you understand better how the tax credits work.
What counts as income?
The ACA counts income based on something called your "Modified Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI). MAGI is your taxable income, the income you report on your tax return. For most people, MAGI will be the adjusted gross income (AGI) that is on your federal tax return. You can find your adjusted gross income in the following places:
Tax Form 1040 - Line 37
Tax Form 1040-EZ - Line 4
Tax Form 1040A - Line 21
All Social Security benefits count towards MAGI, not just the taxable amount. Here's an annotated version of Form 1040 that we marked up to show what goes into MAGI.
If you don't have a previous tax return to use or you think you may be eligible for Medicaid, this worksheet can help you learn more about MAGI.
Do I report everybody's income or just my own?
Just like when you complete your income taxes, for the tax credits you report everyone in your tax household's income. That means you report your income, your spouse's income and the income of any dependents who are on your tax return.
Do I report my past income, current income or future income?
The income that you report should be for the year that you want health insurance. If you apply in November 2014 for insurance to start in January 2015, you will need to estimate your future income for 2015.
If you are applying during the same year you will have insurance (for example, applying in February 2015 for insurance that would start in March 2015), you would report your expected income for 2015.
Source: Consumer Reports
Causes of Anxiety and Panic Attacks
Anxiety may be caused by a mental condition, a physical condition, the effects of drugs, or a combination of these. The doctor's initial task is to see if your anxiety is caused by a medical condition.
Common causes of anxiety include these mental conditions:
Panic disorder: In addition to anxiety, common symptoms of panic disorders are palpitations (feeling your heart beat), dizziness, and shortness of breath. These same symptoms also can be caused by coffee (caffeine), amphetamines ("speed" is the street slang for amphetamines when they are not prescribed by a doctor), an overactive thyroid, abnormal heart rhythms, and other heart abnormalities (such as mitral valve prolapse).
Generalized anxiety disorder
These common external factors can cause anxiety:
Stress at work
Stress from school
Stress in a personal relationship such as marriage
Stress from an emotional trauma such as the death of a loved one
Stress from a serious medical illness
Side effect of medication
Use of an illicit drug, such as cocaine
Symptom of a medical illness (such as heart attack, heat stroke, hypoglycemia)
Lack of oxygen in circumstances as diverse as high altitude sickness, emphysema, or pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the vessels of the lung)
The doctor has the often-difficult task of determining which symptoms come from which causes. For example, in a study of people with chest pain -- a sign of heart disease -- 43% were found to have a panic disorder, not a heart-related condition.
How To Buy Auto Insurance
Car insurance is one of the necessary evils of modern life. You pay a substantial amount of money each month to the insurance company, and if you are like most people, you have not had an accident or made a claim in years. Yet when you do suddenly find yourself involved in a collision, the insurance premiums you've been forking over all these years will finally pay off.
The advent of the Internet has raised the level of competition between insurance companies. Because you can now sit at home in your bathrobe and compare rates and coverage between companies, they are under more pressure to offer competitive deals. So why not leverage the Internet's potential to help you save time, save money, and find the best auto insurance coverage?
First, let's be clear about the fact that auto insurance is required by law in most states―it's not optional. If you drive a car, you must have auto insurance. So you need to find out what the law requires in your jurisdiction when it comes to how much auto insurance coverage you need to maintain. Print out your state's requirements, and save that information for the next step in the process.
What Can Influence Your Rates
Because insurance prices are all based on statistics, the prices each of us pays varies wildly. Things like the driver's age, years of driving experience, what neighborhood the car is usually parked in overnight, the make and model of the car, what kind of safety features the car has, and whether or not you have antitheft devices installed―all of these variables will factor into the price you'll pay for the particular level of coverage you choose.
Before you get too far into shopping for insurance, you might want to order a copy of your driving record. In much the same way that your credit rating determines what kind of interest rate you'll get when you are applying for financing, your driving record will influence your insurance rate.
When you get your driving record, take a look at it to make sure that it is current and accurate. You would not want an error on your driving record to keep you from getting the best rate possible.
What Coverage Do You Need?
Your state sets forth the minimum liability coverage you must maintain, as mentioned above. But these are just the legal minimums and might not give you the coverage you need. You'll have to decide what you want to buy beyond these minimums. Keep in mind that you are looking to find the balance between having adequate coverage and overpaying.
According to Consumer Reports, a general guideline for adequate bodily injury liability limits is $100,000 per person and $300,000 per accident, plus $100,000 for property damage. These amounts are what your insurer will pay to someone you are in an accident with. For uninsured motorist coverage, you should get the same amount as for bodily injury liability, as this covers your medical costs when someone who is not insured hits you.
Other Types of Coverage
You can always supplement your policy with specific protections (for a higher premium, of course). For example, many motorists get comprehensive and collision coverage. Comprehensive pays out when your car is damaged or lost due to causes other than an accident, such as vandalism, theft, or weather. Collision coverage will pay to repair your own car if you hit something.
These options typically come with your choice of deductible, usually $250 to $1,000. This is the amount you pay out of pocket before your insurance kicks in; the higher the deductible, the lower the premium you'll pay for this type of coverage.
Additional options include rental reimbursement coverage, which pays for a rental car while your car is in the shop being repaired. Roadside assistance coverage will pay to have your vehicle towed. Keep in mind that if you already have an auto club membership, you do not need this additional coverage.
Get the Best Rate
The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) recommends that you ask your potential insurer about the following discounts:
Good driving record: Many auto insurers offer discounts to drivers who have not made a claim, haven't been in an accident, or haven't received a traffic ticket in three years.
Good grades: Young drivers can get discounts for maintaining a B average or better in school.
Driver's education: Some insurance companies offer a discount for drivers who complete a driver's education or driver's safety course.
Multiple policies: Some insurance companies offer discounts if you have two or more policies with them.
Safety equipment: Equipment such as antilock brakes and antitheft devices can get you a discount.
Longtime policy holder: If you have kept your policy with an insurer for several years, ask about a discounted premium.
Higher deductibles: A higher deductible usually means lower premiums.
Once you know what kind of coverage your state requires, you will need the following information in front of you in order to get an accurate quote for auto insurance:
The age and sex of the driver(s), the number of drivers in your household, and their driver's license numbers.
A description of your car: the make, model, year, and vehicle identification number (VIN).
The type of coverage and limits you want.
Where you park your car overnight.
Get free auto insurance quotes and compare rates by using DMV.org'S Car Insurance Center.
Now that you have a few comparable quotes and you know which company offers the lowest price for the policy you want, you still need to check out the company itself to find out whether it's reliable.
You can check with your state's department of insurance, which should allow you to compare premiums for insurance companies in your state. You can also check on the financial stability of a company and look up the number of consumer complaints it has accumulated. Take a look at Weiss Ratings to get an independent rating of the companies you are considering. J.D. Power and Associates also offers useful consumer reviews of auto insurance companies.
Review Your Policy
Before you sign, be sure to carefully review your new policy to make sure it includes all the coverage you want. Your policy will need to comply with your state's legal requirements as well as any additional requirements of the company that finances your auto loan. Source: DMV.org
What Causes Mesothelioma?
Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos, a naturally-occurring mineral that was used in various products during the 20th century. When asbestos particles are inhaled or ingested through food or drink, they can become trapped in the body and my cause cancerous tumors to form on the lining of the lungs, abdomen or heart. Mesothelioma is considered malignant, meaning it can become progressively worse and spread to other areas of the body. Source: Mesothelioma.org
How to Find the Best Mesothelioma Lawyer or Law Firm
Choosing a mesothelioma attorney is not a task that should be done in haste. You should never hire a lawyer just because a law firm’s TV ad was loud and flashy. There are many attorneys and law firms competing to handle asbestos or mesothelioma cases, but some are inexperienced newcomers who might not be able to handle your case properly. You need to separate the good lawyers from the not-so-good ones. But with so many law firms and attorneys out there, how do you find the right one?
The first step is to do research on mesothelioma and asbestos attorneys. This sounds easy enough, but it requires time, patience, and energy. These three assets might be in short supply, especially when you are tired and don't feel well, yet it’s important to make sure you seek out the mesothelioma law firm for your particular case and needs. Even if they don’t, they can help you conduct Internet searches and make lists of law firms or attorneys who may be qualified to handle your case.
Whether you conduct your own research or delegate it to others, look for attorneys with the right qualifications and established histories of dealing with asbestos law. Don't make a list that's too long. Select a manageable number of prospective mesothelioma law firms and ask for a case evaluation as quickly as possible. If a law firm can't evaluate your case in a timely manner, there is a chance they may be too busy to take on your case. With cases as sensitive as mesothelioma lawsuits, you'll need an attorney who not only has the experience, but also the time and effort to dedicate to your case.
Looking in the Internet is a convenient and relatively simple method to find the best mesothelioma attorney. The search terms “asbestos lawyer” and mesothelioma attorneys yield literally thousands of search engine results. Though the sheer number of lawyer websites is staggering, you can figure out the better ones simply by reading the information provided on home pages and FAQ sections. An experienced mesothelioma law firm’s website should provide you detailed information regarding all aspects of asbestos-related diseases, state statute of limitations, pertinent information regarding lawsuits, and answers to important questions you may have.
If the information is well-written, free of hyperbole, and covers detailed information, add the firms' names to your list of possible choices. Steer clear of websites belonging to attorneys who make exaggerated promises about how much you will win if you retain them to handle your case. Although it's important to seek out a law firm's track record of previous successful mesothelioma lawsuits, no law firm can guarantee exactly how much you'll win.
Keep in mind, however, that although mesothelioma legal cases were relatively obscure until the number of documented mesothelioma cases rose in the 1990s and 2000s, they are usually lucrative.Yet, there are an array of factors that affect each case, such as the stage of the disease, how you long you were exposed, and much more. Therefore, it’s not possible for a mesothelioma law firm to promise you a set amount of money beforehand. The best mesothelioma lawyers will never make you false promises of how much compensation you can win. Source: mesotheliomalawyercenter.org
Car Donation: How To Donate Your Car To Charity
First Steps to Take When Donating a Car
The car donation process is simple. All you need to do is call the charity and someone will come and pick up your vehicle, or tell you where to bring it. However, with so many charities to choose from and so many people trying to scam the innocent, picking the right organization is not always easy.
On this page you'll find some general tips you can use when you are trying to decide where and how to donate your vehicle.
Before you donate your car to charity, the IRS advises that you:
-Research the charity or organization you plan to donate to.
-See if you will receive a tax benefit for your donation. (The charity/organization you donate to must be qualified. 501(c)(3) organizations are common types that make you eligible for a tax deduction.)
-Look up the value of your car (however, you can only deduct the actual amount the charity sells your car for).
-Ask if you, as a donor, have any other responsibilities in the process.
In addition, you may want to consider:
How your car will be used and where it will go.
If the money from the sale of your car will be used locally or outside of your community.
Which programs or services within the charity will receive funding from the sale.
What the efficiency rating of the charity is. (A lower rating means more of your donation goes toward administrative costs, not to the programs and services you want to support.)
For more information on this and tax-related matters, read the IRS's A Donor's Guide to Vehicle Donations.
Finding a Charity
The choice is yours, but before donating your car, confirm that your charity of choice is recognized by the IRS. Otherwise, your deduction will be rejected. If in doubt, check the IRS's Cumulative List of Organizations which lists qualified charities. Religious organizations aren't listed, though they do qualify. You can also contact the Better Business Bureau (BBB) in your area or the BBB Wise Giving Alliance.
If you're still undecided, Forbes ranks America's 200 largest charities and, in some cases, discloses their financial details. Keep in mind, however, that not every charity listed here accepts car donations.
Additionally, you can search for charities and tax-exempt organizations on the IRS website.
The IRS has clamped down on how much you can write off on donated cars. No longer can you submit a vehicle's full value or "blue book" value for your tax deduction. Now, instead, you can only claim the amount for which it is sold or the fair market value.
Motor Vehicle Department Donation Procedures
Just as if you were selling your car as a private party, when you donate your car to charity, you'll need to satisfy some requirements with your state's motor vehicle division. Some common processes you'll likely need to complete include:
Completing a title transfer.
Canceling your registration.
Completing a notice of transfer/release of liability form.
The exact steps you'll need to take will vary from state to state. Check with your state's DMV office for specific requirements and details.
NOTE: In addition to DMV requirements, you'll also need to cancel your car insurance policy.
Notice of Transfer/Release of Liability
Be sure to visit our guide about Title Transfers to learn how to transfer the title over. You may also need to complete a notice of transfer or release of liability form.
Canceling Your License Plates and Registration
The laws for this vary by state. Some states require surrendering the vehicle's license plates to the DMV. Others require submitting a sold notice, and there are a few states that require no formal notification at all.
In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology).
Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.
Gestational Diabetes - this type affects females during pregnancy.
The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet.
If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life.
Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels.
As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly.
As smoking might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health, diabetics should stop smoking.
Hypoglycemia - low blood glucose - can have a bad effect on the patient. Hyperglycemia - when blood glucose is too high - can also have a bad effect on the patient.
Mesothelioma Attorneys California
Since California has some of the largest deposits of asbestos on Earth, the Golden State currently is ranked first in the United States for mesothelioma and asbestosis deaths. It is estimated that 2,276 to 3,795 malignant mesothelioma deaths occur every year due to prolonged exposure to asbestos.
There is currently more than $30 billion available in trusts funds for those who have been affected by an asbestos-related illness. If you've been diagnosed with mesothelioma or any other asbestos disease, you may be entitled to significant compensation. Fill out our contact form today to receive free brochures from the top California mesothelioma attorneys. We have been helping families for over 20 years find the right mesothelioma attorneys to suit their needs, and we will be happy to help you as well.
Asbestos Exposure in California
Asbestos materials were used in the U.S. from the early 1900s until the 1970s in construction, shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing, electronics, and national defense applications. After the the early 1970s, when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first linked asbestos exposure to lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma, U.S. mining of asbestos gradually stopped. However, asbestos' carcinogenic effects continue to affect millions of individuals, mostly men who served in the military or in any industry which used asbestos between its peak years of use. Due to the prevalence of asbestos used by civilian industries and military facilities in California, everyone in the state is potentially at risk of being exposed to asbestos.
California is particularly vulnerable to a marked increase in mesothelioma deaths for several reasons. The state is home to many types of industries which at one time were large-scale users of asbestos. For instance, during World War II, California contained aircraft factories, manufacturers of radar and radio equipment, shipyards, and automobile plants. All of these industrial complexes used asbestos for various purposes. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, electricians, pipefitters, plumbers, shipbuilders, and steamfitters were the civilian and military workers who were most exposed to asbestos between the late 1930s and the end of the war. Furthermore, military personnel who served between World War II and the mid-1970s were exposed to asbestos for long periods of time while on active duty. This is the principal reason why mesothelioma is diagnosed mainly in white males aged 65 and older.
However, women and children in California are at risk of increased exposure to asbestos fibers in the near future. Because the state's population boom coincided with the prosperity of the post-Depression recovery of the late 1940s and early 1950s, thousands of asbestos-laden homes and residential developments still exist in California. With the popularity of home makeover shows on television, it is possible that many homeowners will carry out do-it-yourself renovation projects and stir asbestos dust into the air as a consequence.
California is also one of the largest repositories of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) thanks in part to its propensity for earthquake activity. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), asbestiform minerals occur in soil and rock as a result of natural geologic processes. In California, NOAs lie in veins near fault lines on the coastal plains and the lower elevations of the Sierra Nevada. NOAs are harmless to humans if they remain undisturbed under the Earth's surface. However, the effects of natural erosion and human activity stir up asbestos fibers and release them into the air.
For city specific information, check out our Los Angeles Mesothelioma Lawyer, San Diego Mesothelioma Lawyer, San Francisco Mesothelioma Lawyer, and Sacramento Mesothelioma Lawyer, and Fresno Mesothelioma Lawyer pages.
California Mesothelioma Cases
The explosive increase of California's population since the 1940s has not only resulted in the state's dynamic economic expansion, but also in an increase in mesothelioma diagnoses and deaths. As more people moved to the state to seek jobs or to live in California's temperate climate after World War II, the resulting boom in construction resulted in widespread use of asbestos. At the time, asbestos' health dangers were not widely known. Instead, the mineral fibers' heat- and fire-resistant properties made them attractive for the construction industry. As a result, millions of homes, schools, office buildings, and factories were built with materials filled with asbestos. Workers who handled drywall, insulation, roofing materials, steam pipes, plumbing materials, and electrical wiring exposed the most.